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Applied Pathophysiology

A Conceptual Approach
Edition: 4
9781975179212
ISBN/ISSN:
9781975179212
Publication Date:
December 8, 2021
2021-12-8
9781975179212
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A Conceptual Approach
  • A Conceptual Approach
  • Edition
    4
    ISBN/ISSN
    9781975179212
    Product Format
    Vitalsource Interactive eBook
    Edition
    4
    Publication Date
    December 8, 2021
  • Judi Nath
    Carie Braun
  • 1 Introduction to
    P athophysiology 1
    Introduction 1
    Defi ning P athophysiology 2
    Understanding P athophysiology 2
    P athogenesis 2
    Etiology 2
    Clinical Manifestations 2
    Diagnosis and Treatment 3
    Applying P athophysiology 4
    Individual Health 4
    Population Health 5
    Disease Prevention 5
    Evidence-Based Practice 6
    Functional Concepts of Altered Health 6
    2 Altered Cells and
    T issues 9
    Introduction 9
    Module 1: Review of Cellular Structure and
    Function 10
    Cellular Components 10
    Plasma (Cell) Membrane 10
    Cytoplasm and Organelles 11
    Cytoskeleton 12
    Cellular Function 12
    Cellular Mechanisms of Transportation 12
    P assive Transport 12
    Active Transport 13
    Ingestion 13
    Secretion 14
    Respiration 14
    Communication 15
    Reproduction 15
    Module 2: Cellular Adaptation and
    Response to Stress 15
    Atrophy 16
    Hypertrophy 17
    Hyperplasia 17
    Metaplasia 17
    Dysplasia 18
    Module 3: Cellular Injury and Death 19
    Mechanisms of Cell Death 19
    Apoptosis 19
    Necrosis 19
    Causes of Cell Injury and Death 20
    Module 4: Clinical Models 21
    Cerebral Atrophy 21
    P athophysiology 21
    Clinical Manifestations 22
    Diagnosis 22
    Treatment 23
    Cardiac Hypertrophy 23
    P athophysiology 23
    Clinical Manifestations 24
    Diagnosis 24
    Treatment 25
    Acromegaly 25
    P athophysiology 26
    Clinical Manifestations 26
    Diagnosis 28
    Treatment 28
    Cervical Metaplasia and Dysplasia 29
    P athophysiology 29
    Clinical Manifestations 29
    Diagnosis 29
    Screening T ests 29
    Diagnostic T ests 32
    Treatment 32
    Environmental T oxin Injury and
    Cardiovascular Disease 32
    P athophysiology 32
    Clinical Manifestations 33
    Diagnosis 33
    Treatment 33
    CONTENTS 3 Inflammation and Tissue
    Repair 36
    Introduction 36
    Review of Body Defense Mechanisms 37
    Module 1: Acute Inflammation 38
    Vascular Response 38
    Inflammatory Mediators Within Cells 39
    Inflammatory Mediators Within White Blood Cells 39
    Inflammatory Mediators Within Platelets 40
    Inflammatory Mediators Within Endothelial or
    Injured Tissue Cells 40
    Inflammatory Mediators Within Plasma 40
    Cellular Response 41
    General Manifestations 42
    Treatment 42
    Resolution of Acute Inflammation 43
    Module 2: Healing and Tissue Repair 44
    Sealing the Wound 44
    Clearing the Debris 44
    Restoring Structural Integrity 45
    Restoring Functional Integrity 46
    Conditions That Promote Wound Healing 47
    Healing by Intention 50
    Complications of Healing and Tissue Repair 50
    Module 3: Chronic Inflammation 51
    Cells of Chronic Inflammation 51
    Granuloma Formation 51
    General Manifestations 51
    Treatment 52
    Module 4: Applied Pathophysiology Clinical
    Models 52
    Sinusitis 52
    Functions of the Sinuses 53
    Acute Sinusitis 53
    Pathophysiology 53
    Clinical Manifestations 53
    Diagnostic Criteria 54
    Treatment 54
    Chronic Sinusitis 54
    Pathophysiology 54
    Clinical Manifestations 55
    Diagnostic Criteria 55
    Treatment 55
    Skin and Burn Injuries 55
    Burns 55
    Pathophysiology 55
    Clinical Manifestations 58
    Diagnostic Criteria 58
    Treatment 58
    Arthritis 59
    Functions of Synovial Joints 59
    Rheumatoid Arthritis 60
    Pathophysiology 60
    Clinical Manifestations 61
    Diagnostic Criteria 61
    Treatment 62
    Gastritis 62
    Functions of the Stomach 62
    Acute Gastritis 62
    Pathophysiology 63
    Clinical Manifestations 63
    Diagnostic Criteria 63
    Treatment 63
    Chronic Gastritis: Infection 63
    Pathophysiology 63
    Clinical Manifestations 64
    Diagnostic Criteria 64
    Treatment 64
    Chronic Gastritis: Autoimmune 64
    Pathophysiology 64
    Clinical Manifestations 64
    Diagnostic Criteria 64
    Treatment 64
    Pancreatitis 64
    Functions of the Pancreas 64
    Acute Pancreatitis 65
    Pathophysiology 65
    Clinical Manifestations 65
    Diagnostic Criteria 65
    Treatment 65
    Chronic Pancreatitis 66
    Pathophysiology 66
    Clinical Manifestations 66
    Diagnostic Criteria 66
    Treatment 67
    Inflammatory Bowel Disease 67
    Functions of the Small Intestine 67
    Crohn Disease 67
    Pathophysiology 67
    Clinical Manifestations 68
    Diagnostic Criteria 68
    Treatment 68Ulcerative Colitis 69
    Pathophysiology 69
    Clinical Manifestations 69
    Diagnostic Criteria 70
    Treatment 70
    4 Altered Immunity 74
    Introduction 74
    Module 1: Review of Immune Function 75
    Cellular Components of Immunity 76
    Immune Cell Origin 76
    Lymphoid Progenitor Cells 76
    Myeloid Progenitor Cells 77
    Lymphatics 78
    Immune Processes 79
    Innate Immunity 79
    Adaptive Immunity 79
    Humoral Immunity 80
    Cell-Mediated Immunity 81
    Module 2: Process of Altering Immune
    Function 83
    Host Defense Failure 83
    Hypersensitivity 84
    Type I or Immediate Hypersensitivity Reaction 85
    Type II Antibody-mediated Reactions 86
    Type III Immune Complex–mediated Reaction 87
    Type IV Cell-mediated Hypersensitivity
    Reaction 88
    Autoimmunity 88
    Alloimmunity 90
    Graft Rejection 90
    Graft Versus Host Disease 91
    Module 3: Immune Response
    Manipulation 91
    Treatment of Maladaptive Immune
    Responses 91
    Immune Response in Disease Management 92
    Immune Response in the Prevention of
    Disease 92
    Module 4: Clinical Models 93
    Immune Maladaptation: AIDS 93
    Pathophysiology 93
    Clinical Manifestations 93
    Diagnostic Criteria 94
    Treatment 95
    Immune Maladaptation: Anaphylactic
    Pathophysiology 95
    Clinical Manifestations 95
    Diagnostic Criteria 97
    Treatment 97
    Immune Maladaptation: Systemic Lupus
    Erythematosus 97
    Pathophysiology 98
    Clinical Manifestations 98
    Diagnostic Criteria 98
    Treatment 99
    Immune Maladaptation: Rh
    Isoimmunization 99
    Pathophysiology 99
    Clinical Manifestations 100
    Diagnostic Criteria 100
    Treatment 101
    5 Infection 105
    Introduction 105
    Module 1: Microbes 107
    Pathogens 107
    Types of Pathogens 108
    Bacteria 108
    Viruses 110
    Rickettsiae, Mycoplasmas, and Chlamydiae 113
    Fungi 114
    Protozoa 115
    Module 2: Communicable Disease 115
    Reservoir 115
    Portal of Exit 116
    Mode of Transmission 116
    Portal of Entry 117
    Host Factors 117
    Module 3: Acute Infection and
    Complications 117
    Complications of Infection 118
    Clinical Manifestations 119
    Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests 119
    Treatment Modalities 119
    Module 4: Clinical Models 120
    Influenza 120
    Pathophysiology 120
    Clinical Manifestations 121
    Diagnostic Criteria 121Hepatitis 121
    The Function of the Liver 121
    Viral Hepatitis 122
    Pathophysiology 123
    Clinical Manifestations 124
    Diagnostic Criteria 124
    Treatment 125
    Tuberculosis 125
    Pathophysiology 125
    Clinical Manifestations 126
    Diagnostic Criteria 127
    Treatment 127
    Urinary Tract Infection 127
    Pathophysiology 127
    Clinical Manifestations 128
    Diagnostic Criteria 128
    Treatment 128
    Pyelonephritis 128
    Function of the Kidneys 128
    Acute Pyelonephritis 128
    Pathophysiology 128
    Clinical Manifestations 129
    Diagnostic Criteria 129
    Treatment 129
    Meningitis 129
    Function of the Meninges 129
    Bacterial Meningitis 129
    Pathophysiology 129
    Clinical Manifestations 131
    Diagnostic Criteria 131
    Treatment 131
    Tinea 132
    Pathophysiology 132
    Clinical Manifestations 132
    Diagnostic Criteria 132
    Treatment 132
    Malaria 133
    Pathophysiology 133
    Clinical Manifestations 133
    Diagnostic Criteria 133
    Treatment 133
    6 Genetic and Developmental
    Disorders 137
    Introduction 137
    Deoxyribonucleic Acid 139
    Genes 139
    Chromosomes 141
    Chromosomal Replication 142
    Module 2: Inheritance of Genetic
    Disorders 143
    Transmission and Expression of Genetic
    Traits 143
    Inheritance of Single Gene Disorders 144
    Genetic Mutations 145
    Autosomal Dominant Disorders 145
    Autosomal Recessive Disorders 147
    Sex-Linked Disorders 147
    Mitochondrial Diseases 147
    Inheritance of Polygenic Disorders 148
    Inheritance of Chromosomal Alterations 149
    Alterations in Chromosomal Number 149
    Alterations in Chromosomal Structure 150
    Epigenetic Inheritance 150
    Module 3: Developmental Disorders 151
    Congenital Disorders 151
    Developmental Origins of Adult Disease 152
    Module 4: Management of Genetic and
    Developmental Disorders 153
    Screening and Diagnosis 153
    Prenatal Screening and Diagnosis 153
    Postnatal Screening and Diagnosis 154
    Treatment Strategies 154
    Module 5: Clinical Models 154
    Autosomal Dominant Genetic Disorder:
    Huntington Disease 155
    Pathophysiology 155
    Clinical Manifestations 155
    Diagnostic Criteria 156
    Treatment 156
    Autosomal Recessive Disorder: Sickle Cell
    Disease 156
    Pathophysiology 156
    Clinical Manifestations 157
    Diagnostic Criteria 157
    Treatment 158
    Mitochondrial Disease 158
    Pathophysiology 158
    Clinical Manifestations 158
    Diagnosis 159Alteration in Autosome Chromosome Number:
    Down Syndrome 159
    Pathophysiology 159
    Clinical Manifestations 160
    Diagnostic Criteria 160
    Treatment 161
    Alteration in Sex Chromosome Number: Turner
    Syndrome and Klinefelter Syndrome 161
    Pathophysiology 161
    Clinical Manifestations 161
    Diagnostic Criteria 162
    Treatment 162
    Sex-Linked Genetic Disorder: Fragile X
    Syndrome (FXS) 163
    Pathophysiology 163
    Clinical Manifestations 164
    Diagnostic Criteria 164
    Treatment 164
    Epigenetic Inheritance: Beckwith–
    Wiedemann Syndrome 164
    Pathophysiology 164
    Clinical Manifestations 165
    Diagnostic Criteria 165
    Treatment 165
    Developmental Maladaptation: Neural Tube
    Defects 165
    Pathophysiology 165
    Clinical Manifestations 166
    Diagnostic Testing 166
    Treatment 166
    7 Altered Cellular
    Proliferation and
    Differentiation 171
    Introduction 171
    Module 1: The Impact of Cancer on the Cell 172
    Altered Cellular Proliferation and
    Differentiation 172
    Carcinogenesis 173
    Genetic Mutations 173
    Oncogenes 174
    Tumor Suppressor Genes 175
    Role of Gene Variants and Epigenetics 175
    Carcinogens 175
    Radiation 176
    Hormones 177
    Chemicals 177
    Tobacco 177
    Microbes 177
    Initiation–Promotion–Progression Theory 177
    Module 2: The Impact of Cancer on Tissues,
    Organs, and Organ Systems 178
    Benign Versus Malignant 179
    Cancer Spread 180
    Cancer Nomenclature 181
    Cancer Classifications 181
    Cancer Prognosis 182
    General Manifestations 182
    Diagnostic Tests 184
    Cancer Treatment 184
    Cancer Prevention 184
    Children and Cancer 186
    Module 3: Clinical Models 186
    Lung Cancer 186
    Pathophysiology 186
    Clinical Manifestations 187
    Diagnostic Criteria 187
    Treatment 187
    Colon Cancer 187
    Pathophysiology 188
    Clinical Manifestations 189
    Diagnostic Criteria 189
    Treatment 189
    Brain Cancer 190
    Pathophysiology 190
    Clinical Manifestations 191
    Diagnostic Criteria 191
    Treatment 191
    Leukemia 191
    Acute Leukemias 191
    Pathophysiology 192
    Clinical Manifestations 192
    Diagnostic Criteria 192
    Treatment 192
    Chronic Lymphocytic and Myelogenous
    Leukemias 192
    Pathophysiology 193
    Clinical Manifestations 193
    Diagnostic Criteria 193
    Treatment 193
    Lymphomas 193
    Hodgkin Lymphoma 193Pathophysiology 194
    Clinical Manifestations 194
    Diagnostic Criteria 194
    Treatment 194
    Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma 195
    Pathophysiology 195
    Clinical Manifestations 195
    Diagnostic Criteria 195
    Treatment 195
    8 Altered Fluid and
    Electrolyte Balance 199
    Introduction 199
    Module 1: Electrolyte Imbalance 200
    Electrolyte Transport 200
    Altered Electrolyte Balance 201
    Altered Sodium Balance 201
    Hyponatremia 201
    Hypernatremia 201
    Altered Potassium Balance 201
    Hypokalemia 201
    Hyperkalemia 201
    Altered Chloride Balance 202
    Hypochloremia 202
    Hyperchloremia 202
    Altered Calcium Balance 202
    Hypocalcemia 202
    Hypercalcemia 202
    Altered Magnesium Balance 202
    Hypomagnesemia 202
    Hypermagnesemia 203
    Altered Phosphate Balance 203
    Hypophosphatemia 204
    Hyperphosphatemia 204
    Module 2: Fluid Imbalance 204
    Fluid Balance 204
    Fluid Transport 204
    Fluid Regulation 205
    Mechanisms to Promote Fluid Intake 207
    Mechanisms to Promote Fluid Excretion 207
    Tonicity 208
    Altered Fluid Balance 209
    Water Content 209
    Hypovolemia 209
    Hemorrhage 210
    Dehydration 210
    Hypervolemia 210
    Edema 212
    Module 3: Clinical Models 213
    Altered Fluid Balance: Cirrhosis 213
    Pathophysiology 213
    Clinical Manifestations 213
    Diagnostic Criteria 213
    Treatment 214
    Altered Sodium Balance: Dehydration 215
    Pathophysiology 215
    Clinical Manifestations 215
    Diagnostic Criteria 216
    Treatment 216
    Altered Calcium Balance:
    Hypoparathyroidism 216
    Pathophysiology 216
    Clinical Manifestations 217
    Diagnostic Criteria 217
    Treatment 217
    9 Altered Acid–Base
    Balance 220
    Introduction 220
    Module 1: Acid–Base Imbalance 221
    Regulation of Acid and Base 221
    Buffer Systems 222
    Plasma Buffer Systems 222
    Respiratory Buffer System 223
    Renal Buffer System 223
    Altered Acid–Base Balance 224
    Metabolic Acidosis 224
    Metabolic Alkalosis 224
    Module 2: Clinical Models 225
    Altered Acid–Base Balance: Highly Active
    Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)-Associated
    Acidosis 225
    Pathophysiology 225
    Clinical Manifestations 225
    Diagnostic Criteria 226
    Treatment 226
    Altered Acid–Base Balance: Renal
    Tubulopathy 226
    Pathophysiology 226
    Clinical Manifestations 227
    Diagnostic Criteria 227
    Treatment 227
    Altered Acid–Base Balance: Metabolic Pathophysiology 228
    Clinical Manifestations 228
    Diagnostic Criteria 228
    Treatment 228
    10 Altered Neural
    Function 231
    Introduction 231
    Module 1: Alterations in Nerve Impulse
    Conduction 232
    Neurons 233
    Supporting Cells 233
    Neurotransmission 234
    Communication Between Neurons 234
    Processes of Neural Injury 236
    Developmental Considerations 236
    Module 2: Alterations in Central Nervous
    System Function 236
    Central Nervous System Organization 237
    Brain 237
    Spinal Cord 238
    Protective Structures of the CNS 240
    Neurocirculatory System 240
    Cerebrovascular Circulation 240
    Blood–Brain Barrier 240
    Cerebrospinal Fluid 240
    CNS Cellular Injury 241
    Mechanisms of Injury to the Cns 241
    Traumatic CNS Injury 241
    Ischemic CNS Injury 243
    Excitation injury 243
    CNS pressure injury 244
    Module 3: Alterations in Peripheral Nervous
    System Function 246
    Peripheral Nervous System
    Organization 246
    Somatic Nervous System 247
    Autonomic Nervous System 247
    Sympathetic Nervous System 248
    Parasympathetic Nervous System 249
    Reflex Arcs 250
    Peripheral Nervous System Cellular Injury 250
    Mechanisms of Injury to the Peripheral Nervous
    System 250
    Traumatic Peripheral Nerve Injury 250
    Peripheral Nervous System Motor
    Dysfunction 251
    Module 4: Clinical Models 252
    Cerebral Palsy 252
    Pathophysiology 253
    Clinical Manifestations 253
    Diagnostic Criteria 254
    Treatment 255
    Multiple Sclerosis 255
    Pathophysiology 255
    Clinical Manifestations 256
    Diagnostic Criteria 256
    Treatment 257
    Hydrocephalus 257
    Pathophysiology 257
    Clinical Manifestations 258
    Diagnostic Criteria 259
    Treatment 259
    Incomplete Spinal Cord Transection 259
    Pathophysiology 259
    Clinical Manifestations 259
    Diagnostic Criteria 261
    Treatment 261
    Parkinson Disease 262
    Pathophysiology 262
    Clinical Manifestations 263
    Diagnosis 263
    Treatment 264
    11 Altered Mood, Attention,
    and Behavior 268
    Introduction 268
    Module 1: Regulation of Mood, Attention, and
    Behavior 269
    Regulation of Mood 269
    Regulation of Attention 270
    Behavior Regulation 272
    Module 2: Alterations in Mood, Attention, and
    Behavior 272
    Alterations in Brain Structure and Function 272
    Recognizing Alterations in Mood, Attention,
    and Behavior 272
    Treating Alterations in Mood, Attention, and
    Behavior 272
    Module 3: Clinical Models 273Pathophysiology 275
    Clinical Manifestations 275
    Diagnostic Criteria 275
    Treatment 275
    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 275
    Pathophysiology 275
    Clinical Manifestations 276
    Diagnostic Criteria 276
    Treatment 277
    Major Depressive Disorder 277
    Pathophysiology 277
    Clinical Manifestations 278
    Diagnostic Criteria 279
    Treatment 279
    Bipolar Affective Disorder 279
    Pathophysiology 279
    Clinical Manifestations 280
    Diagnostic Criteria 280
    Treatment 280
    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 280
    Pathophysiology 280
    Clinical Manifestations 281
    Diagnostic Criteria 281
    Treatment 281
    Autism Spectrum Disorders 281
    Pathophysiology 281
    Clinical Manifestations 282
    Diagnostic Criteria 283
    Treatment 283
    Schizophrenia 283
    Pathophysiology 283
    Clinical Manifestations 283
    Diagnostic Criteria 284
    Treatment 284
    12 Altered Somatic
    and Special Sensory
    Function 288
    Introduction 288
    Module 1: Pain 289
    Somatosensory System 289
    Somatosensory Neuronal Organization 290
    Somatosensory Neurotransmission 291
    Dorsal Root Ganglia Fibers 291
    Dermatome Innervation 291
    Somatosensory Modalities 291
    Stimulus Discrimination 291
    Tactile Stimulation 292
    Thermal Sensation 292
    Position Sensation 292
    Pain 292
    Characterization of Pain 292
    Conduction of Pain Sensation 292
    Pattern Theory 293
    Specificity Theory 293
    Gate Control Theory 294
    Intensity Theory 294
    Neuromatrix Theory of Pain 294
    Manifestations and Evaluation of Pain 295
    Treatment of Pain 295
    Module 2: Alterations in Vision 297
    Visual Structures and Function 297
    Control of Eye Movement 298
    Protective Eye Structures 298
    External Structures 298
    Tears 299
    Aqueous Humor 299
    Alterations in Visual Function 300
    Errors in Refraction 300
    Alterations in Eye Movement 300
    Alterations in Protective Eye Structures 301
    Manifestations and Evaluation of Alterations in
    Vision 301
    Treatment of Alterations in Vision 302
    Module 3: Alterations in Hearing and
    Balance 302
    Structural Components of the Ear 302
    External Ear 302
    Middle Ear 303
    Internal Ear 304
    Hearing Processes 304
    Balance Processes 304
    Alterations in Hearing and Balance 304
    Disorders of the External Ear 305
    Alteration in Middle Ear Function 305
    Alteration in Internal Ear Function 305
    Manifestations and Evaluation of Alterations in
    Hearing 306
    Hearing Evaluation 306
    Evaluation of the Middle Ear 306
    Evaluation of the Internal Ear 306
    Treatment of Alterations in Hearing 307Taste 307
    Smell 307
    Module 4: Clinical Models 308
    Fibromyalgia 308
    Pathophysiology 308
    Clinical Manifestations 308
    Diagnostic Criteria 309
    Treatment 309
    Migraine Headache 310
    Pathophysiology 310
    Clinical Manifestations 310
    Diagnostic Criteria 310
    Treatment 311
    Otitis Media 311
    Pathophysiology 311
    Clinical Manifestations 311
    Diagnostic Criteria 312
    Treatment 312
    Ménière Disease 312
    Pathophysiology 312
    Clinical Manifestations 313
    Diagnostic Criteria 313
    Treatment 313
    Macular Degeneration 313
    Pathophysiology 313
    Clinical Manifestations 314
    Diagnostic Criteria 314
    Treatment 314
    Glaucoma 314
    Pathophysiology 315
    Clinical Manifestations 315
    Diagnostic Criteria 316
    Treatment 316
    Retinopathy of Prematurity 316
    Pathophysiology 316
    Clinical Manifestations 317
    Diagnosis 317
    Treatment 317
    13 Altered Hormonal and
    Metabolic Regulation 321
    Introduction 321
    Module 1: Function and Regulation of
    Hormones 322
    Integrating Endocrine, Neural, and Defense
    Mechanisms in the Body 322
    The Hypothalamic–Pituitary Axis 324
    Feedback Mechanisms 325
    Hormone Secretion, Metabolism, and
    Elimination 327
    Receptor Binding 327
    Mediating Cell-to-Cell Communication 328
    Module 2: The Stress Response 328
    Neurologic Response to Stress 328
    Hormonal Response to Stress 328
    General Adaptation Syndrome 330
    Module 3: Altered Hormone Function 331
    Damage to the Hypothalamic–Pituitary
    Axis 331
    Damage to Endocrine Glands 331
    Damage to Cell Receptors 331
    Damage to Feedback Mechanisms 332
    Damage to Metabolism and Elimination
    Mechanisms 332
    General Manifestations of Altered Hormone
    Function 332
    Diagnosing and Treating Altered Hormone
    Function 332
    Module 4: Clinical Models 333
    Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic
    Hormone Secretion 333
    Pathophysiology 334
    Clinical Manifestations 334
    Diagnostic Criteria 334
    Treatment 334
    Diabetes Insipidus 334
    Pathophysiology 334
    Clinical Manifestations 335
    Diagnostic Criteria 335
    Treatment 335
    Hyperthyroidism 335
    Pathophysiology 336
    Clinical Manifestations 336
    Diagnostic Criteria 336
    Treatment 337
    Hypothyroidism 337
    Pathophysiology 337
    Clinical Manifestations 337
    Diagnostic Criteria 338
    Treatment 338
    Cushing Syndrome 338
    Pathophysiology 339Diagnostic Criteria 340
    Treatment 340
    Addison Disease 340
    Pathophysiology 340
    Clinical Manifestations 340
    Diagnostic Criteria 341
    Treatment 341
    14 Altered Reproductive
    Function 345
    Introduction 345
    Module 1: Regulation of Reproduction 346
    Female Reproductive Hormone Function 346
    Male Reproductive Hormone Function 350
    Module 2: Altered Reproductive Function 352
    General Manifestations of Altered
    Reproductive Function 352
    Diagnosing and Treating Altered
    Reproductive Function 353
    Module 3: Clinical Models 354
    Pelvic Inflammatory Disease 354
    Pathophysiology 355
    Clinical Manifestations 355
    Diagnostic Criteria 355
    Treatment 355
    Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome 356
    Pathophysiology 356
    Clinical Manifestations 357
    Diagnostic Criteria 357
    Treatment 357
    Ovarian Cancer 357
    Pathophysiology 357
    Clinical Manifestations 358
    Diagnostic Criteria 359
    Treatment 359
    Menopause 359
    Pathophysiology 359
    Clinical Manifestations 359
    Diagnostic Criteria 360
    Treatment 360
    Erectile Dysfunction 361
    Pathophysiology 361
    Clinical Manifestations 362
    Diagnostic Criteria 362
    Treatment 362
    Pathophysiology 362
    Clinical Manifestations 362
    Diagnostic Criteria 363
    Treatment 363
    Prostate Cancer 363
    Pathophysiology 363
    Clinical Manifestations 364
    Diagnostic Criteria 364
    Treatment 366
    Testicular Cancer 366
    Pathophysiology 366
    Clinical Manifestations 367
    Diagnostic Criteria 367
    Treatment 367
    15 Altered Ventilation and
    Diffusion 371
    Introduction 371
    Module 1: Pulmonary Structure and
    Function 372
    Ventilation 372
    Inspiration 374
    Expiration 374
    Measurement of Ventilation 374
    Diffusion 375
    Partial Pressure 375
    Oxygen Diffusion and Transport 375
    Carbon Dioxide Diffusion and Transport 376
    Diffusing Capacity 376
    Module 2: Impaired Ventilation 377
    Impaired Ventilation–Perfusion Matching 378
    Impaired Diffusion 378
    The Effects of Impaired Ventilation and
    Diffusion 379
    Hypoxemia and Hypoxia 379
    Hypercapnia 379
    General Manifestations of Impaired Ventilation and
    Diffusion 380
    Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests 383
    Treating Impaired Ventilation and Diffusion 383
    Module 3: Clinical Models 384
    Pneumonia 384
    Pathophysiology 384
    Clinical Manifestations 386
    Diagnostic Criteria 386Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 387
    Emphysema 387
    Pathophysiology 387
    Clinical Manifestations 388
    Diagnostic Criteria 389
    Treatment 389
    Chronic Bronchitis 389
    Pathophysiology 389
    Clinical Manifestations 389
    Diagnostic Criteria 390
    Treatment 390
    Asthma 390
    Pathophysiology 391
    Clinical Manifestations 391
    Diagnostic Criteria 391
    Treatment 393
    Cystic Fibrosis 394
    Pathophysiology 394
    Clinical Manifestations 395
    Diagnostic Criteria 395
    Treatment 396
    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome 396
    Pathophysiology 396
    Clinical Manifestations 396
    Diagnostic Criteria 396
    Treatment 398
    16 Altered Perfusion 402
    Introduction 402
    Module 1: Perfusion 403
    From Ventilation to Perfusion 404
    Circulation 404
    Pulmonary Circulation 405
    Systemic Circulation 405
    Coronary Circulation 405
    Movement of Blood Through the
    Circulation 405
    Cardiac Cycle 406
    Conduction of Impulses 408
    Cardiac Output 409
    Blood Pressure 409
    Neural Control of Blood Pressure and
    Cardiovascular Adaptation 410
    Module 2: Altered Perfusion 412
    Ventilation–Perfusion Mismatching 412
    Impaired Circulation 412
    Excessive Perfusion Demands 417
    General Manifestations of Altered
    Perfusion 417
    Diagnosing and Treating Altered
    Perfusion 417
    Module 3: Clinical Models 418
    Hypertension 419
    Pathophysiology 419
    Clinical Manifestations 420
    Diagnostic Criteria 420
    Treatment 420
    Shock 421
    Pathophysiology 421
    Clinical Manifestations 422
    Diagnostic Criteria 422
    Treatment 423
    Myocardial Infarction 423
    Pathophysiology 423
    Clinical Manifestations 425
    Diagnostic Criteria 425
    Treatment 425
    Heart Failure 426
    Pathophysiology 426
    Left Heart Failure 426
    Right Heart Failure 427
    Clinical Manifestations 429
    Diagnostic Criteria 430
    Treatment 430
    Stroke 430
    Pathophysiology 430
    Clinical Manifestations 431
    Diagnostic Criteria 431
    Treatment 431
    Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation 431
    Pathophysiology 432
    Clinical Manifestations 432
    Diagnostic Criteria 432
    Treatment 432
    17 Altered Nutrition 436
    Introduction 436
    Module 1: Nutrition 437
    Water 437
    Macronutrients: Proteins, Lipids, and
    Carbohydrates 438Nutritional Intake Requirements 443
    Intake and Storage of Nutrients 443
    Digestion 444
    Absorption 448
    Glucose and Fructose Absorption 448
    Amino Acid and Small Peptide
    Absorption 449
    Fatty Acid and Glycerol Absorption 449
    Module 2: Altered Nutrition 450
    Inherited Metabolic Disorders 450
    Undernutrition 451
    Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies 451
    Protein Energy Malnutrition 451
    Overnutrition 454
    Malabsorption 455
    Food Allergy 455
    General Manifestations of Altered Nutrition 456
    Diagnostic Tests and Treatments Related to Altered
    Nutrition 456
    Module 3: Clinical Models 456
    Iron-Deficiency Anemia 456
    Pathophysiology 457
    Clinical Manifestations 457
    Diagnostic Criteria 457
    Treatment 458
    Anorexia Nervosa 458
    Pathophysiology 458
    Clinical Manifestations 459
    Diagnostic Criteria 459
    Treatment 459
    Celiac Disease (Gluten-Sensitive
    Enteropathy) 460
    Pathophysiology 460
    Clinical Manifestations 460
    Diagnostic Criteria 461
    Treatment 461
    Phenylketonuria 461
    Pathophysiology 461
    Clinical Manifestations 461
    Diagnostic Criteria 461
    Treatment 461
    Obesity 462
    Pathophysiology 462
    Clinical Manifestations 463
    Diagnostic Criteria 463
    Treatment 463
    18 Altered Elimination 468
    Introduction 468
    Module 1: Altered Urinary Elimination 469
    Urine Production Process 469
    Urine Production 469
    Urine Removal 471
    Urine Characteristics 472
    Urine Analysis 473
    Altered Urinary Elimination 474
    Processes of Altered Urinary
    Elimination 474
    Alteration in Urinary Motility 474
    Alteration in Urinary Neuromuscular
    Function 474
    Alteration in Urinary Perfusion 475
    Alteration in Urinary Patency 475
    General Manifestations of Altered Urinary
    Elimination 476
    Diagnosis of Conditions of the Renal and
    Urinary Systems 476
    Treatment of Altered Urinary Elimination 477
    Module 2: Alteration in Stool
    Elimination 478
    Processes of Stool Elimination 478
    Stool Elimination Process 478
    Stool Production 478
    Stool Evacuation 479
    Stool Characteristics 480
    Stool Analysis 481
    Altered Bowel Elimination 481
    Processes of Altered Bowel Elimination 481
    Alteration in Bowel Motility 481
    Alteration in Bowel Neuromuscular Function 481
    Alteration in Bowel Perfusion 482
    Alteration in Bowel Patency 482
    General Manifestations of Altered Bowel
    Elimination 483
    Diagnosis of Bowel Conditions 484
    Treatment of Altered Bowel Elimination 485
    Module 3: Clinical Models 485
    Urolithiasis 486
    Pathophysiology 486
    Clinical Manifestations 486
    Diagnostic Criteria 486
    Treatment 487Pathophysiology 488
    Clinical Manifestations 488
    Diagnostic Criteria 488
    Treatment 489
    Polycystic Kidney Disease 489
    Pathophysiology 489
    Diagnostic Criteria 490
    Treatment 491
    Diverticular Disease 492
    Pathophysiology 492
    Clinical Manifestations 494
    Diagnostic Criteria 494
    Treatment 494
    Functional Fecal Incontinence 494
    Pathophysiology 495
    Clinical Manifestations 495
    Diagnostic Criteria 495
    Treatment 495
    19 Degenerative Changes in
    Aging 499
    Introduction 499
    Module 1: Theories of Aging 500
    Theories of Aging 500
    Developmental Theories 500
    Module 2: General Manifestations of
    Aging 501
    Stochastic Theories 501
    Cellular Changes in Aging 502
    Aging and Appearance 502
    Fluid and Electrolyte Balance 502
    Immune Response 503
    Age-Related Proliferative Changes 503
    Neurologic Function 503
    Mobility 504
    Perfusion and Ventilation 505
    Metabolic Processes 505
    Nutrition and Elimination 507
    Module 3: Managing Degenerative Changes in
    Older People 507
    Module 4: Clinical Models 508
    Progeria (Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria
    Syndrome) 508
    Clinical Manifestations 508
    Diagnosis 509
    Treatment 509
    Osteoporosis 509
    Pathophysiology 509
    Clinical Manifestations 510
    Diagnosis 510
    Treatment 511
    Alzheimer Disease 511
    Pathophysiology 511
    Clinical Manifestations 513
    Diagnosis 515
    Treatment 515
    20 Integrated
    Pathophysiologic
    Concepts 518
    Introduction 518
    Glucose, Insulin, Energy, and the
    Pancreas 519
    Diabetes Mellitus 520
    Insulin Deficit: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 520
    Pathophysiology 520
    Clinical Manifestations 521
    Diagnostic Criteria 521
    Treatment 521
    Insulin Resistance and Reduction: Type 2 Diabetes
    Mellitus 523
    Pathophysiology 524
    Clinical Manifestations 524
    Diagnostic Criteria 525
    Treatment 525
    Gestational Diabetes Mellitus 526
    Acute Complications of Diabetes Mellitus 526
    Hypoglycemia 526
    Diabetic Ketoacidosis 528
    Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic
    Syndrome 529
    The Somogyi Effect and Dawn Phenomenon 529
    Chronic Complications of Diabetes Mellitus 529
    Microvascular Complications 530
    Macrovascular Complications 531
    Neuropathies 531
    Infection 531
    Glossary 535
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Applied Pathophysiology

Applied Pathophysiology

ISBN/ISSN: 9781975179212
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