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Exercise Physiology

Nutrition, Energy, and Human Performance
Edition: 9
9781975217297
ISBN/ISSN:
9781975217297
Publication Date:
April 5, 2023
2023-04-5
9781975217297
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Now with Lippincott Connect! Learn more HERE. With a legacy spanning more than 40 years, Exercise Physiology: Nutrition, Energy, and ...
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  • Now with Lippincott Connect! Learn more HERE.

    With a legacy spanning more than 40 years, Exercise Physiology: Nutrition, Energy, and Human Performance has helped nearly half a million students and exercise science practitioners build a solid foundation in the scientific principles underlying modern exercise physiology. This widely praised, trendsetting text presents a research-centric approach in a vibrant, engaging design to make complex topics accessible and deliver a comprehensive understanding of how nutrition, energy transfer, and exercise training affect human performance. The extensively updated 9th Edition reflects the latest advances in the field as well as a rich contextual perspective to ensure readiness for today’s clinical challenges. 
  • Edition
    9
    ISBN/ISSN
    9781975217297
    Product Format
    Hardcover Book
    Trim Size
    8 3/8 x 10 7/8
    Pages
    1176
    Series
    Lippincott Connect
    Edition
    9
    Publication Date
    April 5, 2023
    Weight
    6.5
  • William McArdle
    Frank I. Katch
    Retired Professor of Exercise Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA
    Victor L. Katch
    Professor, Department of Movement Science, Division of Kinesiology, Associate Professor, Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI
  • INTRODUCTION
    A View from the Past xiv
    PART ONE
    EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY 1
    SECTION 1 Nutrition: The Base for
    Human Performance 3
    CHAPTER 1
    Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 4
    PART 1 • CARBOHYDRATES 6
    Carbohydrate Kinds and Sources 6
    Recommended Carbohydrate Intake 11
    Carbohydrates’ Role in the Body 11
    Carbohydrate Dynamics During Physical Activity 12
    PART 2 • LIPIDS 15
    Lipid Characteristics 15
    Lipid Kinds and Sources 15
    Recommended Lipid Intake 22
    Lipid Dynamics in Physical Activity 25
    PART 3 • PROTEINS 28
    About Protein 28
    Protein Categories 29
    Recommended Protein Intake 30
    Protein’s Role in the Body 32
    Protein Metabolism Dynamics 32
    Nitrogen Balance 33
    Protein Dynamics During Physical Activity 35
    CHAPTER 2
    Vitamins, Minerals, and Water 42
    PART 1 • VITAMINS 44
    About Vitamins 44
    Vitamin Types 44
    Vitamins’ Role in the Body 45
    Defining Nutrient Needs: Dietary Reference Intakes 46
    Vitamin Antioxidant Role 47
    Vitamin-Rich Food Sources 48
    Physical Activity, Free Radicals, and Antioxidants 49
    Does Vitamin Supplementation Provide a Competitive Edge? 50
    PART 2 • MINERALS 52
    Mineral Essentials 52
    Mineral Functions 52
    Calcium 53
    Female Athlete Triad 59
    Male Athlete Triad 61
    Phosphorus 62
    Magnesium 62
    Iron 62
    Sodium, Potassium, and Chlorine 66
    Minerals and Exercise Performance 67
    PART 3 • WATER 69
    The Body’s Water Content 69
    Water’s Functions 69
    Water Balance: Intake Versus Output 70
    Physical Activity and Water Requirements 72
    CHAPTER 3
    Optimal Nutrition for Physical Activity 86
    Nutrient Intake Among the Physically Active 88
    Good Nutrition Essentials 93
    Dietary Guidelines for Americans 93
    Physical Activity and Food Intake 98
    Precompetition Meal 103
    Liquid Meals and Prepackaged Nutrition Bars, Powders, and
    Drinks 104
    Carbohydrate Feedings Prior to, During, and in Recovery from
    Physical Activity 106
    High-Glycemic Foods’ Possible Role in Obesity 110
    Foods’ Insulin Index 111
    Glucose Feedings, Electrolytes, and Water Uptake 112
    SECTION 2 Energy for Physical
    Activity 119
    CHAPTER 4
    Food’s Energy Value 120
    Measuring Food’s Energy Content 122
    Food’s Gross Energy Value 124
    Food’s Net Energy Value 126
    Calculating a Meal’s Energy Value 127
    CHAPTER 5
    Introduction to Energy Transfer 134
    Energy: The Capacity for Work 136
    Energy Interconversions 137
    Biologic Work in Humans 139
    Enzymes and Coenzymes: Energy Release Rate Alteration 139
    Hydrolysis and Condensation: The Basis for Digestion and
    Synthesis 143
    CHAPTER 6
    Energy Transfer in the Body 150
    PART 1 • PHOSPHATE BOND ENERGY 152
    Adenosine Triphosphate: The Energy Currency 152
    Phosphocreatine: The Energy Reservoir 154
    Cellular Oxidation 155
    Oxygen’s Role in Energy Metabolism 157
    PART 2 • ENERGY RELEASE FROM MACRONUTRIENTS 158
    Energy Release from Carbohydrate 160
    Energy Release from Lipid 168
    Energy Release from Protein 172
    The Metabolic Mill: Interrelationships Among Carbohydrate, Lipid,
    and Protein Metabolism 173
    CHAPTER 7
    Energy Transfer During Physical Activity 178
    Immediate Energy: The Adenosine Triphosphate-Phosphocreatine
    System 180
    Short-Term Energy: The Glycolytic (Lactate-Forming)
    System 180
    Long-Term Energy: The Aerobic System 182
    ContentsPhysical Activity Energy Spectrum 185
    Recovery Oxygen Uptake 187
    CHAPTER 8
    Measuring Energy Expenditure 194
    Measuring the Body’s Heat Production 196
    Doubly Labeled Water Technique 202
    Respiratory Quotient 202
    Respiratory Exchange Ratio 205
    CHAPTER 9
    Energy Expenditure During Rest and
    Physical Activity 210
    PART 1 • ENERGY EXPENDITURE AT REST 212
    Basal and Resting Metabolic Rate 212
    Metabolic Size Concept 212
    Metabolic Rate: Age and Sex Comparisons 214
    Five Factors That Affect TDEE 216
    PART 2 • ENERGY EXPENDITURE DURING PHYSICAL
    ACTIVITY 220
    Energy Expenditure Classification for Physical Activities 220
    The MET 221
    Average Daily Energy Expenditure Rates 221
    Energy Cost of Household, Industrial, and Recreational
    Activities 222
    Body Mass Influence 222
    Heart Rate to Estimate Energy Expenditure 222
    CHAPTER 10
    Energy Expenditure During Walking,
    Jogging, Running, and Swimming 226
    Human Movement Efficiency and Economy 228
    Human Movement Efficiency 228
    Human Movement Economy 230
    Running Energy Expenditure 233
    Swimming 239
    CHAPTER 11
    Individual Differences and Measuring
    Energy Capacities 248
    Metabolic Capacity and Exercise Performance: Specificity Versus
    Generality 250
    Overview: Exercise Energy Transfer Capacity 250
    Anaerobic Function Physiologic and Performance Tests 250
    Anaerobic Energy Transfer: The Immediate and Short-Term Energy
    Systems 251
    Anaerobic Energy Transfer: The Short-Term Glycolytic (Lactate-
    Forming) Energy System 253
    Aerobic Energy Transfer: The Long-Term Energy System 258
    SECTION 3 Aer obic Energy
    Delivery and Use 273
    CHAPTER 12
    Pulmonary Structure and Function 274
    Ventilation Anatomy 276
    Ventilation Mechanics 278
    Inspiratory and Expiratory Dynamics 279
    Lung Volumes and Capacities 281
    Lung Function, Aerobic Fitness, and Physical Performance 283
    Pulmonary Ventilation 284
    Variations from Normal Breathing Patterns 287
    The Respiratory Tract During Cold-Weather Physical
    Activity 289
    CHAPTER 13
    Gas Exchange and Transport 292
    PART 1 • GAS PARTIAL PRESSURE, MOVEMENT, AND
    EXCHANGE 294
    Respired Gas Concentrations and Partial Pressures 294
    Gas Movement in Air and Fluids 295
    Gas Exchange in the Lungs and Tissues 297
    PART 2 • OXYGEN TRANSPORT IN BLOOD 299
    Oxygen Transport in Physical Solution 299
    Oxygen Transport in Hemoglobin 299
    Po
    2
    in the Lungs 300
    Po
    2
    in the Tissues 303
    PART 3 • CARBON DIOXIDE TRANSPORT IN BLOOD 305
    Carbon Dioxide Transport in Physical Solution 305
    Carbon Dioxide Transport as Bicarbonate 305
    Carbon Dioxide Transport in Hb 306
    CHAPTER 14
    Pulmonary Ventilation Dynamics 310
    PART 1 • PULMONARY VENTILATION 310
    Ventilatory Control 310
    Ventilatory Regulation During Physical Activity 312
    PART 2 • PULMONARY VENTILATION DURING PHYSICAL
    ACTIVITY 314
    Ventilation and Energy Demands During Physical Activity 314
    Oxygen Cost of Breathing 317
    Does Ventilation Limit Aerobic Power and Endurance
    Performance? 320
    PART 3 • ACID-BASE REGULATION 321
    Buffering 321
    Intense Physical Activity Effects 323
    CHAPTER 15
    The Cardiovascular System 326
    Cardiovascular System Components 328
    Hypertension 338
    Blood Pressure Response to Physical Activity 341
    Heart’s Blood Supply 345
    Myocardial Metabolism 347
    CHAPTER 16
    Cardiovascular Regulation and Integration 352
    Intrinsic Heart Rate Regulation 354
    Extrinsic Regulation of Heart Rate and Circulation 360
    Blood Redistribution 365
    Integrative Responses During Physical Activity 367
    Physical Activity After Cardiac Transplantation 369
    CHAPTER 17
    Cardiovascular Dynamics During
    Physical Activity 372
    Measuring Cardiac Output 374
    Cardiac Output at Rest 375
    Cardiac Output During Physical Activity 376
    Cardiac Output Distribution 378
    Cardiac Output and Oxygen Transport 380
    Cardiovascular Adjustments to Upper-Body Exercise 382
    CHAPTER 18
    Skeletal Muscle Structure and Function 388
    Skeletal Muscle Gross Structure 390
    Skeletal Muscle Ultrastructure 396
    Chemical and Mechanical Events During Muscle Action and
    Relaxation 403
    Muscle Fiber Type 409CHAPTER 19
    Neural Control and Human Movement 420
    Neuromotor System Organization 422
    Nerve Supply to Muscle 430
    Proprioceptors: Specialized Receptors in Muscles, Tendons, and
    Joints 439
    CHAPTER 20
    The Endocrine System: Organization and Acute
    and Chronic Responses to Physical Activity 448
    Endocrine System Overview 450
    Endocrine System Organization 450
    Resting and Exercise-Induced Endocrine Secretions 455
    Exercise Training and Endocrine Function 479
    Resistance Training and Endocrine Function 485
    Opioid Peptides and Physical Activity 486
    Physical Activity and Immune Function 487
    PART TWO
    APPLIED EXERCISE
    PHYSIOLOGY 499
    SECTION 4 Enhancing Energy
    Transfer Capacity 501
    CHAPTER 21
    Training for Anaerobic and Aerobic Power 502
    Exercise Training Principles 504
    How Training Impacts the Anaerobic Energy Systems 506
    Anaerobic System Changes with Training 506
    How Training Impacts the Aerobic System 507
    Seven Factors Affecting Aerobic Training Responses 518
    Tracking Aerobic Fitness Improvements 525
    Maintaining Aerobic Fitness Gains 526
    Training Methods 527
    Overtraining Considerations 531
    Physical Activity and Exercise Training During Pregnancy 533
    CHAPTER 22
    Muscular Strength: Training Muscles
    to Become Stronger 542
    PART 1 • STRENGTH MEASUREMENT AND RESISTANCE
    TRAINING 544
    Muscular Strength Development Roots in Antiquity 544
    Resistance Training Objectives 548
    Muscle Strength Measurement 548
    Gender Differences in Muscle Strength 552
    Training Muscles to Become Stronger 556
    PART 2 • RESISTANCE TRAINING: STRUCTURAL AND
    FUNCTIONAL ADAPTATIONS 569
    Neural and Muscular Adaptations Impact Strength
    Improvements 569
    Comparative Male and Female Training Responses 576
    Detraining Effects on Muscle 577
    Resistance Training and Metabolic Stress 578
    Circuit Resistance Training 578
    Muscle Soreness and Stiffness 579
    CHAPTER 23
    Special Aids to Exercise Training and
    Performance 592
    An Increasing Challenge to Fair Competition 594
    PART 1 • PHARMACOLOGIC AGENTS FOR ERGOGENIC
    EFFECTS 596
    Anabolic Steroids 596
    Structure and Action 596
    Clenbuterol and Other ß
    2
    -Adrenergic Agonists 603
    Other Adrenergic Agonists 605
    Growth Hormone: Genetic Engineering Now Common in
    Sports 605
    Dehydroepiandrosterone 606
    Androstenedione: Benign Prohormone Nutritional Supplement or
    Potentially Harmful Drug? 608
    Amino Acid Supplementation 609
    Amphetamines 613
    Caffeine 613
    Ginseng and Ephedrine 616
    Buffering Solutions 618
    Anticortisol Compounds: Glutamine and Phosphatidylserine 619
    ß-Hydroxy-ß-Methylbutyrate 620
    PART 2 • NONPHARMACOLOGIC APPROACHES FOR
    ERGOGENIC EFFECTS 621
    Red Blood Cell Reinfusion—Blood Doping 621
    Hormonal Blood Boosting (EPO) 622
    Warm-Up (Preliminary Exercise) 623
    Oxygen Inhalation (Hyperoxia) 625
    Modifying Carbohydrate Intake 627
    Chromium 630
    Creatine 632
    Medium-Chain Triacylglycerols 636
    Pyruvate 637
    SECTION 5 Ex ercise P erformance
    and Environmental
    Stress 645
    CHAPTER 24
    Physical Activity at Medium and
    High Altitude 646
    Altitude Stressors 648
    Oxygen Loading at Altitude 649
    Acclimatization 650
    Metabolic, Physiologic, and Exercise Capacity at Altitude 658
    Altitude Training and Sea-Level Performance 661
    Combined Altitude Stay with Low-Altitude Training 662
    CHAPTER 25
    Exercise and Thermal Stress 668
    Weather Versus Climate: Time as a Factor 670
    PART 1 • THERMOREGULATION MECHANISMS 670
    Thermal Balance 670
    Hypothalamic Temperature Regulation 671
    Thermoregulation in Cold Stress 672
    Thermoregulation During Heat Loss 672
    How Clothing Impacts Thermoregulation 675
    PART 2 • THERMOREGULATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEAT
    STRESS DURING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY 678
    Physical Activity in the Heat 678
    Rehydration and Hyperhydration to Maintain Fluid Balance 683
    Factors That Modify Heat Tolerance 686
    Complications from Excessive Heat Stress 689
    PART 3 • THERMOREGULATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL COLD
    STRESS DURING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY 691
    Physical Activity in the Cold 691
    Cold Acclimatization 693CHAPTER 26
    Sport Diving 702
    Diving History: Antiquity to the Present 704
    Pressure-Volume Relationships and Diving Depth 712
    Snorkeling and Breath-Hold Diving 712
    Scuba Diving 717
    Special Problems Breathing Gases at High Pressures 720
    Dives to Exceptional Depths: Mixed-Gas Diving 725
    Underwater Swimming Energy Cost 728
    CHAPTER 27
    Microgravity: The Last Frontier 734
    The Weightless Environment 736
    The International Space Station’s 20th Anniversary 738
    Aerospace Physiology and Medicine Historical Overview 740
    Spaceflight Physiology 748
    Countermeasure Strategies 759
    Overview of Physiologic Responses to Spaceflight 767
    NASA’s Ambitious Vision for Future Space Exploration 767
    Practical Benefits from Space Biology Research 774
    Final Words 774
    SECTION 6 Bod y Composition,
    Energy Balance,
    and Weight Control 793
    CHAPTER 28
    Body Composition Assessment 794
    Four Limitations in Using the Weight-for-Height Tables 796
    Overweight, Overfat, and Obesity Prevalence 796
    The Body Mass Index: A Popular but Imprecise Clinical Standard 797
    Modeling Human Body Composition 801
    Common Techniques to Assess Body Composition 808
    Average Percentage Body Fat 829
    How to Determine Goal Body Mass 830
    Looking to a Brighter Future 830
    CHAPTER 29
    Physique, Performance, and Physical
    Activity 836
    Physique Status in Champion Athletes 838
    Body Composition in 100-Year-Old Males and Females 855
    CHAPTER 30
    Overweight, Overfatness (Obesity),
    and Weight Control 862
    PART 1 • OBESITY 864
    Historical Perspective 864
    Obesity Remains a Global Epidemic 864
    Increased Body Fat: A Progressive Long-Term Process 867
    Physical Inactivity: A Crucial Component for Excessive Fat
    Accumulation 871
    Excessive Body Fat’s Health Risks 872
    Criteria for Excessive Body Fat: How Fat Is Too Fat? 874
    PART 2 • WEIGHT CONTROL PRIMARY PRINCIPLES
    INVOLVE DIET AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY 882
    Energy Balance: Input Versus Output 882
    Dieting for Weight Control 883
    Factors That Impact Weight Loss 889
    Increase Physical Activity for Weight Control 890
    Regular Physical Activity’s Effectiveness 893
    Weight Loss Recommendations for Wrestlers and
    Power Athletes 897
    Gaining Weight: The Competitive Athlete’s
    SECTION 7 Ex ercise, Successful
    Aging, and Disease
    Prevention 907
    CHAPTER 31
    Physical Activity, Health, and Aging 908
    The Graying of America 910
    The New Gerontology 910
    PART 1 • PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN THE POPULATION 913
    Physical Activity Epidemiology 913
    PART 2 • AGING AND PHYSIOLOGIC FUNCTION 921
    Age Trends 921
    Trainability and Age 930
    PART 3 • PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, HEALTH, AND LONGEVITY 931
    Physical Activity, Health, and Longevity 931
    Regular Moderate Physical Activity Benefits 932
    PART 4 • CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES 934
    CHD Links to Cellular Level Alterations 935
    CHD Risk Factors 937
    CHAPTER 32
    Clinical Exercise Physiology for Cancer,
    Cardiovascular, and Pulmonary
    Rehabilitation 952
    The Exercise Physiologist in the Clinical Setting 954
    Training and Certification Programs for Professional Exercise
    Physiologists 954
    Clinical Applications of Exercise Physiology to Diverse Diseases and
    Disorders 956
    Oncology 956
    Cardiovascular Diseases 960
    Cardiac Disease Assessment 964
    Stress Test Protocols 974
    Cardiovascular Disease and Exercise Capacity 976
    Prescribing PA and Exercise 977
    Cardiac Rehabilitation 979
    Pulmonary Diseases 980
    PA and Asthma 986
    Neuromuscular Diseases, Disabilities, and Disorders 987
    Renal Disease 988
    Cognitive/Emotional Diseases and Disorders 989
    SECTION 8 On the Horizon 1007
    CHAPTER 33
    Molecular Biology: New Vista for
    Exercise Physiology in Health,
    Disease, and Performance 1008
    PART 1 • MOLECULAR BIOLOGY HISTORICAL TOUR 1012
    Revolution in the Biologic Sciences 1014
    The Human Genome 1015
    Nucleic Acids 1017
    How DNA Replicates 1025
    Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation 1028
    Mutations 1041
    PART 2 • NEW HORIZONS IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 1047
    Medically Related Research 1047
    Electrophoresis and Gel Transfer Methods 1054
    Gene Editing 1065
    PART 3 • HUMAN PERFORMANCE RESEARCH 1070
    The Future Is Now 1075
    Index 1087
  • With a legacy spanning more than 40 years, Exercise Physiology: Nutrition, Energy, and Human Performance has helped nearly half a million students and exercise science practitioners build a solid foundation in the scientific principles underlying modern exercise physiology. This widely praised, trendsetting text presents a research-centric approach in a vibrant, engaging design to make complex topics accessible and deliver a comprehensive understanding of how nutrition, energy transfer, and exercise training affect human performance. The extensively updated 9th Edition reflects the latest advances in the field as well as a rich contextual perspective to ensure readiness for today’s clinical challenges. 
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